Recommended reading for health care professionals:
Useful Overviews and Research Summaries
Bruce M. A systematic and conceptual review of posttraumatic stress in childhood cancer survivors and their parents. Clin Psychol Rev. 2006:26:233-256.
Horowitz L, Kassam-Adams N, Bergstein J. Mental health aspects of emergency medical services for children: summary of a consensus conference. J Pediatr Psychol. 2001;26:491-502. (Published concurrently in Acad Emerg Med. 2001;8(12):1187-96.)
Kahana SY, Feeny NC, Youngstrom EA, Drotar D. Posttraumatic stress in youth experiencing illnesses and injuries: an exploratory meta-analysis. Traumatology. 2006;12:148-161.
Kassam-Adams N, Fein J. Posttraumatic stress disorder and injury. Clinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine 2003;4:148-155.
Kazak A. Comprehensive care for children with cancer and their families: a social ecological framework guiding research, practice and policy. Children's Services: Social Policy, Research and Practice 2001;4(4): 217-233.
Kazak AE. Pediatric psychosocial preventative health model (PPPHM): research, practice, and collaboration in pediatric family systems medicine Families, Systems, & Health. 2006;24(4):381-395.
Kazak AE, Kassam-Adams N, Schneider S, Zelikovsky N, Alderfer MA, Rourke M. An integrative model of pediatric medical traumatic stress. J Pediatr Psychol. 2006;31(4):343-355.
O'Donnell M, Creamer M, Bryant R, et al. Posttraumatic stress disorders following injury: An empirical and methodological review. Clin Psychol Rev. 2003:23:587-603.
Saxe G, Vanderbilt D, Zuckerman B. Traumatic stress in injured and ill children. PTSD Research Quarterly 2003;14:1-3. Available here.
Stuber ML, Schneider S, Kassam-Adams N, Kazak AE, Saxe G. The medical traumatic stress toolkit. CNS Spectrums. 2006;11(2):137-142.
Stuber ML, Shemesh E, Saxe GN. Posttraumatic stress responses in children with life-threatening illnesses. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2003;12(2):195-209.
Zatzick D, Roy-Byrne P. Developing high-quality interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder in the acute care medical setting. Semin Clin Neuropsychiatry 2003;8(3):158-167.
Research Studies: Assessment /Intervention
Kazak AE, Alderfer MA, Streisand R, et al. Treatment of posttraumatic stress symptoms in adolescent survivors of childhood cancer and their families: a randomized clinical trial. J Fam Psychol. 2004;18(3):493-504.
Kazak AE, Cant C, Jensen MM, McSherry M, Rourke MT, Hwang W-T et al. Identifying psychosocial risk indicative of subsequent resource use in families of newly diagnosed pediatric oncology patients. J Clin Oncol 2003;21(17):3220-3225.
Kazak AE, Simms S, Alderfer MA, et al. Feasibility and preliminary outcomes from a pilot study of a brief psychological intervention for families of children newly diagnosed with cancer. J Ped Psychol. 2005;30(8):644-655.
Kazak A., Simms S., Barakat L., et al. Surviving Cancer Competently Intervention Program (SCCIP): A cognitive-behavioral and family therapy intervention for adolescent survivors of childhood cancer and their families. Family Process. 1999:38:175-191.
Kenardy J. A., Spence SH, Macleod AC. Screening for posttraumatic stress disorder in children after accidental injury. Pediatrics, 2006:118:1002–1009.
Melnyk BM, Alpert-Gillis L, Feinstein NF, Crean HF, Johnson J, Fairbanks E, et al. Creating opportunities for parent empowerment: program effects on the mental health/coping outcomes of critically ill children and their mothers. Pediatrics 2004;113(6);e597-e607.
Pai A, Patino-Fernandez A, McSherry M, et al. The Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT2.0): Psychometric properties of a screener for psychosocial distress in families of children newly diagnosed with cancer. J Ped Psych 2008:33:50-62.
Robert R, Blakeney P, Villarreal C, Rosenberg L, Meyer WJ. Imipramine treatment in pediatric burn patients with symptoms of acute stress disorder: a pilot study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1999;38(7):873-882.
Saxe G, Stoddard F, Courtney D, et al. Relationship between acute morphine and the course of PTSD in children with burns. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2001:40:915-921
Smith P, Yule W, Perrin S, Tranah T, Dalgleish T, Clark TM. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for PTSD in children and adolescents: A preliminary randomized controlled trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2007; 46:1051-1061.
Stallard P, Velleman R, Salter E, Howse I, Yule W, Taylor G. A randomised controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of an early psychological intervention with children involved in road traffic accidents. J Child Psychol & Psychiat & Allied Discip. 2006;47(2):127-134..
Winston FK, Kassam-Adams N, Garcia-España JF, Ittenbach R, Cnaan A. Screening for risk of persistent posttraumatic stress in injured children and their parents. JAMA. 2003;290(5):643-649.
Guidelines & Resources for Assessment / Intervention
Cohen J, Kelleher K, Mannarino A. Identifying, treating, and referring traumatized children: the role of pediatric providers. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2008;162(5):447-452.
Kazak AE. Comprehensive care for children with cancer and their families: A social ecological framework guiding research, practice and policy. Children's Services: Social Policy, Research and Practice 2001;4(4):217-233.
Kazak AE. Pediatric psychosocial preventative health model (PPPHM): Research, practice, and collaboration in pediatric family systems medicine Families, Systems, & Health. 2006;24(4):381-395.
National Child Traumatic Stress Network and National Center for PTSD. Psychological First Aid: Field Operations Guide. Second Edition. 2006.
National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): the management of PTSD in adults and children in primary and secondary care. In: Clinical Guideline. London. 2005. SEE: http://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG26
Rose S, Bisson J, Churchill R, Wessely S. Psychological debriefing for preventing post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2007;Issue 2.
Saxe GN, Ellis BH, Kaplow JB. Collaborative treatment of traumatized children and teens: the trauma systems therapy approach. New York: The Guilford Press; 2006.
Stuber ML, Schneider S, Kassam-Adams N, Kazak AE, Saxe G. The medical traumatic stress toolkit. CNS Spectrums. 2006;11(2):137-142.
Research Studies: Prevalence and Etiology - Cancer
Alderfer MA, Labay LE, Kazak AE. Brief report: Does posttraumatic stress apply to siblings of childhood cancer survivors? J Pediatr Psychol. 2003;28(4):281-286.
Best M, Streisand R, Catania L, et al. Parental distress during pediatric leukemia and parental posttraumatic stress symptoms after treatment ends. J Pediatr Psychol. 2001:26:299-307.
Brown RT, Madan-Swain A, Lambert R. Posttraumatic stress symptoms in adolescent survivors of childhood cancer and their mothers. J Trauma Stress. 2003;16(4):309-318.
Kazak AE, Alderfer M, Rourke MT, et al. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in families of adolescent childhood cancer survivors. J Pediatr Psychol. 2004;29(3):211-219.
Kazak A, & Barakat L. Parenting stress and quality of life during treatment for childhood leukemia predicts child and parent adjustment after treatment ends. J Pediatr Psychol. 1997:22:749-758.
Langeveld NE, Grootenhuis MA, Voute PA, de Haan RJ. Posttraumatic stress symptoms in adult survivors of childhood cancer. Pediatric Blood & Cancer. 2004;42(7):604-610.
Manne S, DuHamel K, Ostroff J, et al. Anxiety, depressive, and posttraumatic stress disorders among mothers of pediatric survivors of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Pediatrics. 2004;113(6):1700-1708.
Phipps S, Larson S, Long A, et al. Adaptive style and symptoms of posttraumatic stress in children with cancer and their parents. J Pediatr Psychol. 2006:31, 298-309.
Stuber ML, Kazak AE, Meeske K, Barakat L, Guthrie D, Garnier H, et al. Predictors of posttraumatic stress in childhood cancer survivors. Pediatrics. 1997;100(6):958-964.
Stuber ML, Nader KO, Houskamp BM, Pynoos RS. Appraisal of life threat and acute trauma responses in pediatric bone marrow transplant patients. J Trauma Stress. 1996;9(4): 673-686.
Research Studies: Prevalence and Etiology - Injury
Daviss W, Mooney D, Racusin R, Ford J, Fleischer A, McHugo G. Predicting posttraumatic stress after hospitalization for pediatric injury. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2000;39(5):576-583.
DeVries APJ, Kassam-Adams,N, Cnaan A, et al. (1999). Looking beyond the physical injury: Posttraumatic stress disorder in children and parents after pediatric traffic injury. Pediatrics. 1999:104:1293 -1299.
Fein J, Kassam-Adams N, Gavin M, Huang R, Blanchard D, Datner E. Persistence of post-traumatic stress in violently injured youth seen in the Emergency Department. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002;156(8):836-840.
Hall E, Saxe G. Stoddard F. et al. (2006). Posttraumatic stress symptoms in parents of children with acute burns. J Pediatr Psychol. 2006:31:403-412.
Holbrook TL, Hoyt DB, Coimbra R, Potenza B, Sise M, Anderson JP. Long-term posttraumatic stress disorder persists after major trauma in adolescents: new data on risk factors and functional outcome. Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care. 2005;58(4):764-769.
Kassam-Adams N, García-España JF, Miller VA, Winston F. Parent-child agreement regarding children's acute stress: the role of parent acute stress reactions. J Amer Acad Child & Adol Psychiatry. 2006;45(12):1485-1493.
Kassam-Adams N, Winston FK. Predicting child PTSD: the relationship between acute stress disorder and PTSD in injured children. J Amer Acad Child & Adol Psychiatry. 2004;43(4):403-411.
Levi RB, Drotar D, Yeates KO, Taylor HG. Posttraumatic stress symptoms in children following orthopedic or traumatic brain injury. J Clin Child Psychol. 1999;28(2):232-243.
Meiser-Stedman R, Yule W, Smith P, et al. Acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents involved in assaults or motor vehicle accidents. Am J Psychiatry. 2005:162:1381-1383.
Saxe G, Stoddard F, Courtney D, Cunningham K, Chawla N, Sheridan R, et al. Relationship between acute morphine and the course of PTSD in children with burns. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2001;40(8):915-921.
Winston FK, Kassam-Adams N, Vivarelli-O'Neill C, Ford J, Newman E, Baxt C, et al. Acute stress disorder symptoms in children and their parents after pediatric traffic injury. Pediatrics. 2002;109(6):e90.
Zink KA, McCain GC. Posttraumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents with motor vehicle-related injuries. J Spec Pediatr Nurs. 2002;8(3):99-106.
Research Studies: Prevalence and Etiology - Intensive Care
Balluffi A, Kassam-Adams N, Kazak A, Tucker M, Dominguez T, Helfaer M. Traumatic stress in parents of children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit. Ped Crit Care Med. 2004;5(6):547-553.
Colville G, Kerry S and Pierce C. Children's factual and delusional memories of intensive care. Am J Resp Crit Care Med. 2008;177(9):976-982.
Rennick JE, Morin I, Kim D, Johnston CC, Dougherty G, Platt R. Identifying children at high risk for psychological sequelae after pediatric intensive care unit hospitalization. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2004;5(4):358-363.
Research Studies: Prevalence and Etiology - Procedures and Pain
Gavin L, Roesler T. Posttraumatic distress in children and families after intubation. Pediatr Emerg Care. 1997;13(3):222-224.
Powers S. Empirically supported treatments in pediatric psychology: procedure-related pain. J Pediatr Psychol. 1999;24(2):131-145.
Rennick JE, Johnston CC, Dougherty G, Platt R, Ritchie JA. Children's psychological responses after critical illness and exposure to invasive technology. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2002;23(3):133-144.
Shaw RJ, Robinson TE, Steiner H. Acute stress disorder following ventilation. Psychosomatics. 2002;43(1):74-76.
Research Studies: Prevalence and Etiology - Transplant
Farley LM, DeMaso DR, D'Angelo E, et al. Parenting stress and parental post-traumatic stress disorder in families after pediatric heart transplantation. J Heart & Lung Transplant. 2007:26:120-126.
Mintzer LL, Stuber M, Seacord D, Castaneda M, Mesrkani V, Glover D. Traumatic stress symptoms in adolescent organ transplant recipients. Pediatrics. 2005;115:1640-1644.
Lurie S, Shemesh E, Sheiner PA, et al. Non-adherence in pediatric liver transplant recipients: an assessment of risk factors and natural history. Ped Transplant. 2000;4:200-206.
Shemesh E, Lurie S, Stuber ML, Emre S, Patel Y, Vohra P et al. A pilot study of posttraumatic stress and nonadherence in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Pediatrics. 2000;105(2):e29.
Shemesh E. Non-adherence to medications following pediatric liver transplantation. Pediatric Transplantation. . 2004;8(6):600-605.
Young GS, Mintzer LL, Seacord D, Casteneda M, Mesrkhani V, Stuber M. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in parents of transplant recipients: incidence, severity, and related factors. Pediatrics. 2003;111:e725-731.
Research Studies: Prevalence and Etiology - Other
Bryant RA, Salmon K. Sinclair E. et al. Heart rate as a predictor of posttraumatic stress disorder in children. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2007:1:66-68.
Connolly D, McClowry S, Hayman L, Mahony L, Artman M. Posttraumatic stress disorder in children after cardiac surgery. J Pediatr. 2004;144(4): 480-484.
DeMier RL, Hynan MT, Harris HB, & Manniello RL. Perinatal stressors as predictors of symptoms of posttraumatic stress in mothers of infants at high risk. J Perinatol. 1996;16(4):276-280.
Graham-Bermann S, Seng J. Violence exposure and traumatic stress symptoms as additional predictors of health problems in high-risk children. J Pediatrics. 2005;146:349-354.
Iseri, PK, Ozten E, Aker AT. Posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder is common in parents of children with epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior. 2006:8:250-255.
Landolt MA, Ribi K, Laimbacher J, Vollrath M, Gnehm HE, Sennhauser FH. Posttraumatic stress disorder in parents of children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. J Pediatr Psychol. 2002;27(7):647-652.
Landolt MA, Vollrath M, Ribi K, Gnehm HE, Sennhauser FH. Incidence and association of parental and child posttraumatic stress symptoms in pediatric patients. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2003;44(8):1199-1207.
Noyes J. The impact of knowing your child is critically ill: A qualitative study of mothers' experiences. J Adv Nurs. 1999;29(2):427-435.
Seng JS, et al. Posttraumatic stress disorder and physical comorbidity among female children and adolescents: results from service-use data. Pediatrics. 2005;116(6):e767-776.
Research Studies: Provider Stress and Self-Care
Association of Professors of Medicine. Predicting and preventing physician burnout: Results from the United States and the Netherlands. Am J Med. 2001:111:170-175.
Badger JM. Understanding secondary traumatic stress. Am J Nurs. 2001;101(7):26-32.
Deckard G, Meterko M, Field D. Physician burnout: an examination of personal, professional, and organizational relationships. Med Care. 1994;32(7).
Kazak AE, Blackall GF, Boyer BA, et al. Implementing a pediatric leukemia intervention for procedural pain: the impact on staff. Families, Systems & Health. 1996;14(1):43-56.
LeBlanc P, Bakker AB, Peeters MCW, et al. Emotional job demands and burnout among oncology care providers. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping. 2001:14:243-263.
Lopez-Castilo J, Gurpegui M, Ayuso-Mateors, et al. Emotional distress and occupational burnout in health care professionals serving HIV-infected patients: A comparison with oncology and internal medicine services. Psychotherapy & Psychosomatics. 1999:68:358-356.
Madrid PA, Schacher SJ. A critical concern: pediatrician self-care after disasters. Pediatrics. 2006; 117: S454-S457.
Meadors P, Lamson A. Compassion fatigue and secondary traumatization: provider self care on intensive care units for children. J Ped Health Care. 2008;22(1):24-34.
Maytum JC, Heiman MB, Garwick AW. Compassion fatigue and burnout in nurses who work with children with chronic conditions and their families. J Ped Health Care. 2004;18(4):171-179.
Stamm BH. Work-related secondary traumatic stress. PTSD Research Quart. 1997;8(2):1-3.
Witt Sherman D. Nurses' stress and burnout. American Journal of Nursing. 2004;104(5):48-56.